Modulating to Another Key

I am interested to know more about modulating to another key while playing a song. Bryan Tolentino touched on this at last years workshop, but I am still fuzzy on just how to use is smoothly. I understand that that one must go to the V7 chord of the key that you are modulating to.
My 1st question is: Can you modulate to any key, or must you simply go up or down a key at a time? I seem to remember modulating from F major to G major, then to D major.
My next question is how to do it in time? Say you are playing a song in C major and want to modulate to F major.
Let’s say the chord progression of the song is simply a bar of each:
I, IV, V7, I (followed by the turnaround) ii7, V7, I
C, F, G7, C, D7, G7, C
So if you were modulating to the key of G major…
Would you just go directly from the D7 to the G major since that is the V7 in the key of G?
C, F, G7, C > D7 > G, C, D7, G
I, IV, V7, I, > V7, > I, IV, V7, I
Perhaps this is something that you have already covered in one of your video courses, but I have not run across it yet. Maybe this is a topic that would be easier covered in a live stream or podcast.

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“Must” is a strong word in music. But often, yes.

Modulation is mostly a part of Hawaiian music so all my answers are from that style:

  1. You can modulate to any key, but usually will go somewhere in the neighborhood. It’s most common to go up a whole or half step at the end of the song
  2. Depends. You can just replace the II7 V7 I (old key) with V7 I (new key). Or you can add the new V7 after a vamp and usually it will be for two bars. C > G: D7// G7// C// D7// G////…

Thanks, that was the answer I was looking for. “Usually” two bars. I need to try that. Sorry about using ‘must’, as I need to be mindful of my “black and white”, “all or nothing” mindset when it comes to music. I have been wanting to modulate to another key, in order to practice switching from a I, IV, V in one key, to I, IV, V in another key.

Just imagine Uncle George yelling, “K! Going to G!” You’ll be fine.

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